The Godfrey Lowell Cabot Science Library is Harvard University's principal general science library, with special emphasis on research collections in mathematics, statistics, geology, psychology, plant molecular biology, and related interdisciplinary studies.

Opened in 1973, the library was named in honor of Godfrey Lowell Cabot (1861–1962), Class of 1882, an industrial chemist, manufacturer of carbon black, aviation pioneer, and benefactor of the sciences. The library was conceived as a part of Harvard's Science Center, which also opened in 1973. Under the stewardship of Dr. Alan E. Erickson, who served as librarian from the library's inception until his retirement at the end of 1991, Cabot rapidly became one of the busiest libraries on campus.

In May 2005, Kummel Library for the Geological Sciences closed as a service point and its collections were integrated into Cabot. The Geological Sciences Library was created in 1962, with the merger of several collections, including the Mineralogy Library, the Rotch Mining Library, and the Kirk Bryan Geomorphology Library. Later the library’s main holdings in stratigraphy and regional geology were enhanced by the addition of books and journals from the Museum of Comparative Zoology. The library became a unit of the Harvard College Library in 1984, and in 1987 was rededicated in honor of Bernhard Kummel, Professor of Geology at Harvard from 1952 until his death in 1980. During its history the library benefited from the direction of a distinguished line of librarians: Evan Blumenthal (1966–1969), Katherine Van Geel (1969–1971), Jean Eaglesfield (1971–1979), Julian Green (1979–1983), Connie Wick (1983–1996), Allen Bourque (1996–1998), and Michael Leach (1998–2005), Lynne Schmelz, and Anu Vedantham, as Interim Directory for Science and Engineering Libraries (2016-).

Cabot underwent a significant renovation in 2016-2017, along with the Science Center's Cafe and Courtyard.